Rosa Parks (1913 -2005) was an African American civil rights activist in Alabama. She organised and collaborated with civil rights leaders including Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., eventually becoming an international icon in her own right for resistance to racial segregation. Her refusal to surrender her seat to a white passenger on a Montgomery bus spurred a city-wide boycott. The city had no choice but to lift the law requiring segregation on public buses. She subsequently became known nationwide as "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement".