Jeremiah Brandreth (1785-1817) was an out-of-work stocking maker, living in Sutton-in-Ashfield, Nottinghamshire. He was executed for treason after being convicted of plotting to overthrow the Government of the United Kingdom as part of a Luddite plot.
The 'revolution' began on 9 June 1817. Brandreth had held a final meeting at The White Horse pub in Pentrich, Derbyshire, where he and his fellow conspirators planned to lead a march on Nottingham where "they would receive 100 guineas, bread, meat and ale." They would then lead an attack on the local barracks, overthrow the government and "end poverty for ever".
Brandreth led his wet, despondent and dwindling party of revolutionaries with determination, repeating rhymes such as this:
'Every man his skill must try
He must turn out and not deny
No bloody soldier must he dread
He must turn out and fight for bread
The time is come you plainly see
The government opposed must be.'
The plot was a failure and around 35 men were tried for treason at the Old Bailey for their role in the Pentrich Rising. It is thought that Brandreth and two others, William Turner and Isaac Ludlam, known as the Pentrich Martyrs, were some of the last people to be beheaded by an axe (posthumously, after being hanged) in an execution in Britain.